How to digest and absorb the essence of foreign advanced technology?

â–¡ Xuchang Yufeng Textile Co., Ltd. chief engineer Ruding Ding This year, the development of cotton textile enterprises is facing a severe test. However, many companies purchase equipment with huge amounts of money but it is difficult to really play a role, and even suffer from increasing cost pressures, advanced equipment Failure to make first-rate products has resulted in great waste of resources. As an experienced textile frontline expert, Xuding Yu, chief engineer of Xuchang Yufeng Textile Co., Ltd., has written out what he saw and heard in the production line in recent years. He has written questions about cotton spinning equipment itself, problems in marketing, and The problems existing in the use of equipment by cotton spinning companies have been summarized and summed up in the hope that they will be able to attract valuable comments and urge textile colleagues to work together to promote the early establishment of strong textile nations.

At present, the decision-makers of textile companies think about the most realistic and most realistic method of how to further reduce costs, optimize internal resources of enterprises, and strengthen enterprises. Many entrepreneurs said with emotion that they can no longer spin medium and low-end products, otherwise they can only find death. So, can we spin high-quality products with advanced equipment? The author's understanding of the general phenomenon is: China's "Ninth Five-year" development plan has spent hundreds of billions over the past ten years to introduce a large number of complete sets of cotton spinning equipment and components, such as carding, automatic winding, combing machines, etc. Only a few have high-grade, high-quality products? The reason is that, besides business decision-making, market, and management, individuals feel this and the idea of ​​quick success and instant benefit have penetrated into the minds of quite a few policy makers. There is no great effort and effort to implement how to digest and absorb the essence of foreign equipment and equipment. It is related to waste of resources and increased costs.

The status quo and existing problems in the digestion and absorption of imported equipment in textile machinery factory

Running-in period usually refers to the main indicators such as failure rate, reliability, and quality stability. At present, the running-in period of installed domestic equipment is higher than that of imported machines. Although domestic machines have made great progress, there is still a small gap between equipment stability and failure rate. Usually the initial months or even six months compared to the import machine failure rate is still high. In the carding system, there is still a small gap between the spinning yarns and similar products. The gap between automatic winding equipment is even greater. The running-in period of foreign equipment is generally half a month, and some domestic equipment may be months or even more than half a year.

There are several reasons why the running-in period of domestic equipment is higher than that of imported machines:

The first is that the key components are not closed. If the domestic carding machine also uses the suspension cover conveyor belt, but the key parts of the toothed belt is not wear-resistant, the toothed belt with the impact of the impact of the nail (Foreign machine on the cover drive system designed to prevent the protruding screw breaking device ) As long as the cover has not been brushed clean or there is a build-up of flowers, it will cause the cover to arch up and break the protruding studs, and this stud is broken and difficult to repair, resulting in increased production stoppages and material cost.

The second is to mechanically imitate the components of foreign equipment and failed to really understand its role and principles. For example, the brush roller cover of the carding machine means that the brush roller bracket cannot contact the cover plate even if the brush roller axis is adjusted to the lowest position, so that the cover plate is not always cleaned. The automatic spinning doffing increased from 504 spindles to 1008 spindles, and the mechanical transmission torque force was significantly increased. However, no efforts were made in the key components such as roller brackets and cam molding materials, heat treatment and processing, resulting in rapid wear of the above components. The life expectancy can be imagined, and the failure rate is also self-evident.

Third, the driving performance of the equipment is not stable. For example, a high-yield domestic carding machine is sensitive to temperature and humidity. The speed of the machine can be 160-170 m/min (5 g/m) in spring and autumn, but it is high-temperature, high-humidity or low-temperature, low-humidity in summer and winter (especially in the middle of the night. ) The doffer speed is generally 150m/min, and the side door of the doffer must open up the wind, otherwise it will cause the breakage to increase. The reason may be related to the fact that the accuracy of the steel cover plate of Doffer's bottom is not enough to cause the gauge to reach the process requirements and air flow interference. The fourth is that the related technology that is matched with the technology on the car is not in place, so that the process cannot really stabilize the car on a long-term basis. The most typical is that the processing accuracy and installation accuracy of the components of the carding machine cannot meet the standards of similar products of the same kind in the world, and the use unit cannot guarantee the precision and stability of the process.

Spinning machine equipment into the market there is an abnormal phenomenon

1, spare parts and equipment shoddy although through the introduction of equipment, digestion and absorption and innovation has made significant progress, but the rapid development of domestic textile machinery, but also competing prices down the situation. For some high-end equipment and equipment, it is necessary to ensure the performance and requirements of the equipment design, should purchase accessories, equipment and electronic components according to international procurement standards. But what I see is that some textile mills are catering to the textile mills' pursuit of the so-called “beautiful and inexpensive”, disregarding the strict standards of high-end equipment, and configuring some spare parts and equipment that are well-repaired. The author saw with his own eyes that the rubber roller and apron of a long-staple spinning machine (with automatic doffing) in a certain factory could not be used for only 4 months, and the high-speed spindle would wear out in less than a year, or even break. The first two years saw a factory still equipped with ordinary track materials on high-yielding carding machines, which was seriously worn out in less than a year. The cylinder spacing of the cover plate cannot be guaranteed, and the curved track produced by the Trützschler company of the same type is based on the FEM analysis method as an improvement benchmark, which uses the ramp gradient to change to 6-point gauge. Therefore, it is hoped that the machinery factory and the cotton spinning factory should further coordinate and communicate with each other, and try to avoid the unreasonable practices of high-end equipment in the configuration of middle and low-end components or equipment. The cotton spinning factory should not adopt any method of comparing prices and trying to buy cheap products, thus affecting the overall performance. And play the best results.

2. Exaggerating the suspicion of equipment functions Some textile mills use the plant to pursue the demand for high output and high speed to reduce costs. Some speeds and yields of the product manuals introduced by some spinning mills during the transaction are not the same as the day to truly satisfy various production quality and conditions. The next is available, but the maximum speed at the time of the experiment is used as an indicator of the long-term stability of the plant's expectations, and even some functions are exaggerated. The author once consulted Rieter AG of Switzerland: “Does your company produce a high-yielding comber known as 450-inches-per-minute, can it meet the design requirements in the actual production process? How long is the service life and stability?” Rieter Professionals answered It is said that there is basically no moisture in the work and the quality of production is guaranteed only when this work is embedded. The author's practice of using this machine for many years from Jiangsu Huaxi Textile Factory has proved to be true, and the quality of the products produced is among the best in the country. In fact. Rieter Textile Machinery's reputation and reputation in the Chinese market are obvious to all. Of course, cotton mills also gradually understand the speed of production to consider at least more than 20% of the water.

3. It is not standardized that new products will be brought to market. It is understood that the new equipment exhibited at the European International Textile Machinery Exhibition will not be introduced to the market until at least two years after the test factory and its cooperating factories, such as the compact spinning machine in Europe. The market has only been mature for many years before it was introduced to the Chinese market. Some textile mills in China also conduct similar large-scale, simulated cotton spinning production operations at the Wuxi Mashan Textile Machinery Experimental Factory, allowing customers to enjoy assured new product equipment. At present, from the perspective of many cotton spinning mills, there are still many textile mills that intentionally or unintentionally use the cotton spinning plant directly as a pilot factory. There is no cooperation agreement between the production equipment and the use of the equipment. Spinning mills often use lower than market prices. Baits sell newly designed untested equipment. At the end, only a large amount of manpower and material resources can be spent on the use of the unit. The quality cannot be guaranteed and the risk can be transferred to the use plant. Explain that our country does not have a good market environment and a notary agency for protecting the rights and interests of cotton spinning companies.

Cotton mills have problems in digesting imported equipment or equipment

1. Having advanced equipment but no market competition after China's accession to the WTO has forced powerful companies to invest heavily in technological transformation. These plants already have the most advanced equipment in the world or the best equipment in the country and are equipped with the world's best known equipment such as the Graf needle of Switzerland. Cloth, but also want to do a good job selling yarn prices, but most of the plants are still doing a big road cargo products. Many factories can do well in sample production. Mass production is not an issue. Customers often complain that the quality of finished yarn cannot be really passed. There is a core issue here, that is, all people hope that as long as they have the world's advanced equipment, they can produce high-quality yarns of international standards. In fact, many internal indicators used in the plant's evenness test have reached more than 5% of Uster. The average level of the world sells ordinary yarn prices. The reason is simple: Our starting point is rather to spend huge sums of money to buy equipment and to spend less effort on digestion and absorption, or to go far enough under martial arts, to make quick successes and gains, to neglect the most basic and most effective work, and to find that many The loss of plant technicians is very serious, and technically it still stays in the middle and low-end equipment. When new equipment is used in the best period of one or two years to replace parts and components, it may often replace the so-called inexpensive components that do not meet the standards in China. , so that the good end of imported equipment and equipment toss about the same.

2. The introduction of equipment is only to increase the output. Remember that a factory in Zhejiang spent a few years earlier to spend hundreds of millions to buy dozens of rotary cups that were able to produce 30 or more bottles at the time of high production (15,000 rpm). Spinning equipment, the results of the plant used to produce low-grade 8 English yarn, due to poor use of raw materials, maintenance can not keep up, the results can be imagined. The original spinning high-grade yarns of the equipment are wasted. Here represents a considerable part of the decision-making and business model of private owners, that is, short-term behavior, to get profits as soon as possible, not to maximize the benefits, let alone consider the company's long-term development planning and participate in international competition.

3, buying equipment is only talking about cheaper compared with the chairman of the state-owned enterprises, the owner of the private enterprise is a bargain master on the purchase of equipment, even foreigners are also experienced, this is not a bad thing in itself, the problem is a price of a cargo, you have to look at Whether your goods meet international standards, you must also consider the cost performance. Even if importers gradually find out the doorway to Chinese commerce, after the goods are purchased, everyone can see that a large number of non-original components and equipment have been incorporated into the bidding equipment. Practice testing is not the best, and some are even International counterfeiting of certain brands of products, such as counterfeit ECC cards, Graff clothing, counterfeit SKF bearings, etc., does not mean that there are no such problems when they are sold expensively. However, there is currently a phenomenon that there is no non-rapture or no business, and foreign companies also use China. It is worth noting that people are respectful. In the same way, the purchase of domestic counterfeit textile equipment imported from China is even more prominent in this type of problem. This market will not be rectified and will seriously affect the use of manufacturers' interests and the long-term sustainable development of textiles.

4, the overall technology and management level constraints to develop high-grade products China's cotton mills after the "Eleventh Five-Year Plan", most companies have been qualitatively improved equipment, should be efficient and low-cost, high-quality and high-yield, high-quality production of yarn is not a problem. In fact, in recent years, the process of undergoing enterprise transformation and reform and modernization in China has just begun. The management system is incomplete, the loss of various types of talents, and the lack of labor and increased costs have hampered the maximization of resources and market interests. In terms of high-yielding carding machines, cotton spinning companies in China have basically become popular. However, due to the fact that the overall technical level and management level of domestic cotton spinning enterprises have not kept pace, although several years of integration have taken place, small plants with thousands of spindles and tens of thousands of spindles still exist. With so many talents, even if they bought advanced equipment, they can only use the cannon as a weapon.

From the current situation, using high-yielding carding machines has the following phenomena: First, the high output of high-yielding carding machines can reduce costs, reduce the number of people, and over-promotion by manufacturers, indeed combing the rotor spinning process. Generally, the cotton machine can reach 70kg/h, but the performance of a certain number of high-yield carding machines in the early days was unstable, and the management quality was not in place. The second is the high-yielding carding machine manufacturer in China to improve the quality. Most of the configurations are internationally known. Manufacturer's clothing, such as Graf clothing, and the production plant due to ancillary equipment and equipment can not keep up, for example, is still disputed imported clothing or not to wear, if the mill is grinding, the use of grinding equipment, which auxiliary equipment and methods, etc. problem. The above problems are not solved, and the on-board process is difficult to guarantee. The quality of the clothing often falls down during the warranty period, not to mention blindly that the imported clothing can work overtime, without any clothing repair. Third, many factories lack the most basic test equipment, and how to control the quality of long-term stability. Fourth, in order to ensure stable quality, some plants still use light-quantitative, slow-moving speeds with high-output carding machines, and the output is maintained at around 35kg/h, which is undoubtedly a waste of high-quality equipment resources.

Advice on the digestion and absorption of advanced technologies

As soon as China becomes a strong textile country, it should focus on long-term development goals. From a strategic point of view, we must not rely on imported equipment, and we must not allow China's textile machinery equipment to always maintain a reasonable price, but the technical level is only a set image of the world's second-rate level. , We must have the confidence to strive for the key hosts and some of the equipment components to reach the world-class level as soon as possible in the next five-year plan. The following are some of the immaturity opinions proposed by individuals:

1. Through the government and market integration of cotton textile equipment and human resources, eliminate small and medium-sized manufacturers with large energy consumption, poor management, and lack of skilled personnel, and strictly control the repeated introduction of equipment. If introduced, they must bear the risk of repayment on schedule.

The next five-year plan calls for the introduction of advanced equipment and the introduction of corresponding supporting software. Emphasizing the introduction of core technology, can play a role in four or two. If there are conditions in the key equipment, components and other strengthening with foreign technology cooperation. Digest and absorb foreign advanced technology, from imitation to self-design, to innovation, and develop a new generation of mechatronics with high energy consumption, high level of yield, reliable performance, and high quality, with a high degree of automation.

It is hoped that the China Textile Federation will consider the production and manufacturing standards of the textile machinery industry under the new situation, from the perspective of improving the international level of textile machinery as soon as possible, standardizing the entry threshold of enterprises according to different product grades, optimizing the existing resources of domestic textile machinery, and protecting the Corporate rights. There should be policy restrictions on manufacturers that do not have high-end production facilities, and qualifications should be banned if they do not have production conditions. The standard formulation should emphasize the procurement of raw materials, the selection of cooperation units for equipment, the design, manufacture, assembly and commissioning of equipment products, and the experimental period before product launch, including the overall technical evaluation of experimental equipment, and the quality level of production products should be similar. Legally binding texts and institutions. As soon as possible the end of the phenomenon of good and bad.

2. How to digest and absorb advanced equipment and technologies, in addition to policy guidance and financial incentives, the China Textile Federation may work with relevant state agencies to formulate relevant laws and regulations and create an atmosphere for digesting and absorbing advanced technologies.

The large number of imported equipment has been used for many years. The biggest demand for cotton spinning mills is that the price of imported replacement parts is astounding. For example, our company has a draw frame with self-leveling drawing machine output detection bell, weighing less than 100 grams, priced at 2 million. The most used solenoid valve, in fact, as long as the replacement of a seal, up to a twenty or twenty dollars, but no substitute, had to spend thousands of dollars to buy a solenoid valve. There are thousands of thousands of encoders and thousands of thousands of encoders, and the lifetime is not as long as imagined. Similarly, the springs and bearing seals used in the automatic winding splicer can only use domestically produced parts for up to 3 months, which is much lower than that of foreign countries for more than a year and stable quality, but foreign prices are at least 3 times more. The problem lies in domestic spare parts, equipment, a large number of fake and shoddy products, through the unusual channels to enter the manufacturer, bringing unpredictable adverse consequences, resulting in waste of people, materials, and objects. People in the industry are all talking about the whole machine and prototype of the textile mill can be done well. But specific to a certain part of the machine is not willing to work hard, even a key screw can not do well, not to import. Because I have a long-term production line, the words may not be easy to hear. The biggest headache for security workers is that the imported equipment replaced with domestically-made bearings is endless, basically short-lived, and advanced equipment can only be useless. Sometimes you really have to express emotion. Why are spaceships all over the heavens, and even one bearing can't do well? In addition, it can be checked that there are a large number of bearings on the market currently tagged with foreign trademarks, and become so-called imported parts for foreign packaging. An engineer at a certain factory has developed a set of skills to identify false bearings. In addition, close cooperation with the factory and off-site cooperation, such as the repair of burned motor repairs, many unqualified repair shops, around the good motor does not guarantee the use of the period, often burned again in a month or two, there is no test means, simply by the so-called experience.

Japan is worthy of our imitation in terms of digestion and absorption. They use less than 20% of the funds to introduce equipment hardware, but they spend 80% of the money to really find out every detail and software function in the equipment, so as to create it again and reach the top level in Europe and America. . Therefore, the state must pay attention to the research and investment in basic components. Our core components are currently in the hands of others, and the price is controlled by others. Such as industrial computers, PCC (programmable computers), encoders, solenoid valves, frequency converters, electronic yarn clearers, AC servo motors, sensors, etc., cotton spinning equipment such as combing card ** blade, sawtooth series, all kinds of comb needle Cloths, rubber rollers, aprons for drafting parts, pneumatic cradle, winding section rings, wire rings, etc. are still required to be stable in terms of stability, reliability, consistency, and service life, in order to reduce the similarities with foreign countries. Product gaps improve product performance and market competitiveness.

3, digestion and absorption rely on talent.

It is not easy for a spinning mill to manufacture similar equipment abroad in such a short period of time, but it is by no means imminent to really eat the essence of the equipment. The role of industry, universities, research and development, or the market may be immature, how the university is truly connected with the market, and the results of the research turn into commodities. From the current cotton mills that use imported equipment, the overall performance, maintenance, operation, and management of the equipment have not been systematically maximized, and the technical strength is relatively thin. In order to remedy the defects in this aspect, it is hoped that the machinery factory will organize technical personnel to provide comprehensive and systematic training to the manufacturers who sell the equipment.

4. The technical upgrading of textile mill equipment must be done in a timely manner.

Enterprises with economic strength can go one step ahead and carry out large-scale transformations or join the international advanced level in the introduction. However, we can not ignore the "human and machine support" (ie, the quality of employees, management level and the application of advanced equipment) relationship problems, can not ignore the cost of high depreciation and market convergence problems. The high debt, large investment in the textile industry, and the failure of the market to cope with the debt are frequent occurrences. Therefore, risk assessment and market prediction should be done as far as possible.

Enterprises with weak economic strength can choose the road of automation combined with domestic transformation and import of key parts. Although China's automatic chemical control technology still has a large gap with foreign countries in the manufacture of complete sets of products, it has matured in terms of transformation and system integration, especially software design, which is more in line with the reality of the enterprise. The cost of such renovation is only a fraction of the total import, and the cost of accessories and maintenance is also much lower. In fact, many companies already do this, but promotion is not enough.

In general, the textile industry's road to industrial automation is both urgent and gradual. At the same time, it must be linked to market demands and balanced with its own strength.

Yufeng Textile Factory introduced the world's first-class advanced equipment last year. All equipment product manuals have hundreds of pages of extremely comprehensive, meticulous and standardized manuals. After reading the manuals of similar domestic products, they talked about a few pages. This is the gap. Each manual repeatedly emphasizes the importance of safety, and then the fact that the specification is more suitable for the fact that the skills of the factory-safety workers at the present stage are declining. There are detailed explanations and decompositions for each functional component and device on the machine. Sometimes it seems to be too tedious, but Its responsibility and meticulous attitude toward users are admirable.

5. It is hoped that the textile factory will establish a close communication and interaction relationship with the use plant. The new products and equipment sold by the spinning machine factory to the use unit should be transparent, explain the reason, win-win cooperation, implement the three packages, and the textile machinery factory should not overdo it. Exaggerate equipment performance. It is expected that the industry will have corresponding regulations on such phenomena.

The use of a factory is a reliable experience for the inspection of new equipment products. It is the best place to find the problem. It is the birthplace of improvement, digestion and absorption, and the inspiration for innovation. Many of the second-generation products of textile machinery manufacturers have their origins. China's equipment to solve the stability, reliability, low failure rate and other major gaps with foreign countries, it is the need to continue to resolve these existing problems in the interaction between the two sides, which gradually improved. The key depends on whether you are sincere, down-to-earth, and attention to detail. Then one day your equipment will be impeccable and will inevitably rise to the level of an international brand.

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